The Online Subsystem interfaces in UE4 now support Epic Online Services (EOS). Implementations are available on desktop, console, and mobile platforms, and support cross-platform online functionality for games that want to use these features. Some of the available functionality includes:
Toe-clips and toestraps and clipless pedals help keep the foot locked in the proper pedal position and enable cyclists to pull and push the pedals. Technical accessories include cyclocomputers for measuring speed, distance, heart rate, GPS data etc. Other accessories include lights, reflectors, mirrors, racks, trailers, bags, water bottles and cages, and bell. Bicycle lights, reflectors, and helmets are required by law in some geographic regions depending on the legal code. It is more common to see bicycles with bottle generators, dynamos, lights, fenders, racks and bells in Europe. Bicyclists also have specialized form fitting and high visibility clothing.
In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after dark. As some generator or dynamo-driven lamps operate only while moving, rear reflectors are frequently also mandatory. Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians, and other cyclists, though sometimes a car horn can be used when a 12 volt battery is available.
Multiple aggregation pipelines can be used to create multi-faceted aggregations that characterize data across multiple dimensions (or facets) within a single aggregation stage. Multi-faceted aggregations provide multiple filters and categorizations to guide data browsing and analysis. A common implementation of faceting is how many online retailers provide ways to narrow down search results by applying filters on product price, manufacturer, size, and other factors.
1.31 answer: He's leaving a hospital after visiting his wife, who's onheavy life-support. When the power goes out, he knows she can't livewithout the life-support systems (he assumes that if the emergency backupgenerator were working, the elevator wouldn't lose power; this aspect isn'tentirely satisfactory, so in a variant, the scene is at home rather than ina hospital).
drains in chemistry compact sleeper in medbay (between the two cryocells) thinktape in artlab guaranteed labeller in artlab additional thinktape in tech storage audiolog + tapes in science fixed bridge shield controls not working at all Ol' Harner in robotics purge valve + pumps for the generator mechanics can now enter tech storage APC powercell charger added to QM
(Color online) (a) Schematic representation of the regenerative capability and oxidation state switching of ceria nanoparticles in an aqueous environment. The pictures of the bottles containing the nanoparticle suspension in DI water indicate color and oxidation state changes after different aging periods. (b) XPS Ce 3d spectra from particles removed from solution after one day and three weeks. Consistent with the optical measurements and solution color, the particles were mostly Ce+4 after one day and mostly Ce+3 after three weeks. When H2O2 was added to the aged nanoparticles in solution, they switched from Ce+3 back to Ce+4. Adapted with permission from Kuchibhatla et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 14108 (2012). Copyright 2012, American Chemical Society.
Before XPS analysis was done on these particles, they had been examined by XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Due to the likely thin surface coating and a noncrystalline nature of the F either in the particle or on the particle surfaces, the presence of F was not detected by these methods. Without the surface sensitive analysis (XPS, in this case), the presence of the contamination at the particle surface may have remained unrecognized. A careful evaluation of the synthesis process helped determine the source of the F and steps were made to successfully reduce the F contamination by replacing PTFE components in the generator with machinable glass. Tools with high surface sensitivity provide information regarding surface contamination that may not be detected by other methods. The XPS data provided important information critical to the development of the planned toxicology study by confirming and reinforcing the need for characterizing the surface of nanoparticles upon generation and also during exposure to properly interpret the in vivo responses.
(Color online) Ce 3d XPS spectra from ceria nanoparticles deposited on a Si substrate. Based on optical data, we would expect the ceria to be mostly Ce+3. The deposition process produced regions of high (a) and low (b) particle density. The XPS photoelectron spectrum from the higher density of particles differed (some Ce+4) from the lower density region (only Ce+3).
(Color online) Schematic model for the carboxylic-terminated SAM on a flat gold surface that was used in the SESSA calculations. Reprinted with permission from Techane et al., Anal. Chem. 83, 6704 (2011). Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society.
(Color online) For application of SESSA to predict the signal strengths from SAM-coated Au nanoparticles, the particles were modeled as multiconcentric cylinders, where each cylinder surface has an average photoelectron take-off angle of ai. The XPS detector is positioned at 0° from the central axis of the AuNP. (a) The sphere is divided into nine concentric cylinders. (b) The end of each cylinder is modeled as a flat surface tiled relative to the axis of the spectrometer with infinite thickness of gold, and (c) the surface composition of each flat Au sample is weighted by its geometric factor then summed together to find the AuNP surface composition. Reprinted with permission from Techane et al., Anal. Chem. 83, 6704 (2011). Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society.
(Color online) Schematic diagram showing the relationships of peak intensity ratios (a) and shell thickness' of nanoparticles based upon knowledge of the radius of the nanoparticles. Reprinted with permission from Shard, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 16806 (2012). Copyright 2012, American Chemical Society.
(Color online) Illustration of the SFG liquid cell and experimental geometry. The cell body was made of Teflon. The nanoparticles were deposited on the flat bottom of a CaF2 1 in. diameter hemisphere, which served as the optical window. The liquid flowed through ports sealed by Teflon plugs for studies not requiring the following liquid. The visible and infrared beams were propagated through the CaF2 hemisphere and overlap at the center of the flat surface of the CaF2 hemisphere. The SFG signals were collected in a reflective geometry.
Recently, mathematical morphology has been used to develop efficient image analysis tools. This paper compares the performance of morphological and conventional edge detectors applied to radiological images. Two morphological edge detectors including the dilation residue found by subtracting the original signal from its dilation by a small structuring element, and the blur-minimization edge detector which is defined as the minimum of erosion and dilation residues of the blurred image version, are compared with the linear Laplacian and Sobel and the non-linear Robert edge detectors. Various structuring elements were used in this study: regular 2-dimensional, and 3-dimensional. We utilized two criterions for edge detector's performance classification: edge point connectivity and the sensitivity to the noise. CT/MR and chest radiograph images have been used as test data. Comparison results show that the blur-minimization edge detector, with a rolling ball-like structuring element outperforms other standard linear and nonlinear edge detectors. It is less noise sensitive, and performs the most closed contours.
We have examined the transmission of soft X-ray pulses from the FERMI free electron laser through carbon films of varying thickness, quantifying nonlinear effects of pulses above and below the carbon K-edge. At typical of soft X-ray free electron laser intensities, pulses exhibit linear absorption at photon energies above and below the K-edge, ~308 and ~260 eV, respectively; whereas two-photon absorption becomes significant slightly below the K-edge, ~284.2 eV. The measured two-photon absorption cross section at 284.18 eV (~6 x 10-48 cm4 s) is 7 orders of magnitude above what is expected from a simple theory based on hydrogen-like atomsmore » - a result of resonance effects.« less
The results of measurements of nonlinear refraction at the absorption edge in InAs between 68 and 90 K taken with an HF laser are compared with those of a band-gap resonant model in which the contribution of the light-hole band is included and found to account for more than 40% of the observed nonlinear refraction. A generalized expression for the nonlinear index is derived by using the complete Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, with no free parameters.
Low noise detection with state-of-the-art mid-infrared (MIR) detectors (e.g., PbS, PbSe, InSb, HgCdTe) is a primary challenge owing to the intrinsic thermal background radiation of the low bandgap detector material itself. However, researchers have employed frequency upconversion based detectors (UCD), operable at room temperature, as a promising alternative to traditional direct detection schemes. UCD allows for the use of a low noise silicon-CCD/camera to improve the SNR. Using UCD, the noise contributions from the nonlinear material itself should be evaluated in order to estimate the limits of the noise-equivalent power of an UCD system. In this article, we rigorously analyze the optical power generated by frequency upconversion of the intrinsic black-body radiation in the nonlinear material itself due to the crystals residual emissivity, i.e. absorption. The thermal radiation is particularly prominent at the optical absorption edge of the nonlinear material even at room temperature. We consider a conventional periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based MIR-UCD for the investigation. The UCD is designed to cover a broad spectral range, overlapping with the entire absorption edge of the PPLN (3.5 - 5 µm). Finally, an upconverted thermal radiation power of ~30 pW at room temperature (~30°C) and a maximum of ~70 pW at 120°C of the PPLN crystal are measured for a CW mixing beam of power ~60 W, supporting a good quantitative agreement with the theory. The analysis can easily be extended to other popular nonlinear conversion processes including OPO, DFG, and SHG. 2b1af7f3a8